Database Management Systems (DBMS) are software solutions that help us efficiently deal with data and databases. DMBS are vital because they make storing, organizing, and accessing information easier and quicker.
They serve as an interface between the user and the database, allowing them to make desired changes.
Here’s an overview of things you need to know about database management systems, what they do, how they operate, and their types.
Functions of a Database Management System
A DBMS has many functions. Some of them are:
- Data Organization: a way to organize data for easy access and manipulation
- Data Storage: a way to manage the physical storage of data on storage devices
- Data Retrieval: a way to retrieve specific data from a database using query language
- Data Manipulation: a way to update, add, and delete data in a database
- Data Security: a way to keep the data secure using features like access control, authentication, and encryption
- Data Backup and Recovery: a way to back up the data in a database so the users don’t lose it due to hardware or software failures, and recover the data if it is lost
- Concurrency Control: a way to provide data access to multiple users at the same time without interference
- Transaction Management: a way to ensure the data is consistent and reliable
- Performance Tuning: a way to maintain the speed and performance of the database by tuning query execution, indexing, and storage management
Components of a Database Management System
There are ten components that make a DBMS tick. They are:
- Database: a repository of data and information stored in a structured way
- DBMS Engine: software that manages the storage, access, and manipulation of data in the database
- Data Definition Language (DDL): a language used to define the structure of the database, like tables, columns, and relationships
- Data Manipulation Language (DML): a language used to add, update, and delete data in the database
- Query Language: a language used to retrieve data from the database
- Database Schema: the structure of the database, like tables, columns, and relationships
- Data Dictionary: storage of metadata about the data in the database, like data types, relationships, and constraints
- Backup and Recovery Components: tools and processes to back up and restore the database if the data gets corrupted or deleted due to hardware and software failures
- Security Components: tools and processes to keep the data in the database secure against unauthorized access
- Transaction Management Components: tools and processes that help manage the execution of database transactions to ensure consistency and reliability
Types of Database Management Systems
Just as there are many types of databases (read about them here), there are many kinds of database management systems.
Each database management system is designed to support specific databases, like relational databases, non-relational databases, and others.
Here are the different types of DBMS and the kinds of databases they deal with:
- Relational DBMS: the most common type of DMBS that uses tables with predefined structures and relationships to organize data. For example: MySQL, Oracle, and SQL Server.
- NoSQL DBMS: a relatively new type of DBMS that supports flexible, semi-structured and unstructured data formats. It also provides fast read and write speeds. For example: MongoDB, Cassandra, Couchbase, etc.
- Object-oriented DBMS: a type of DBMS that stores objects as the primary data type and supports object-oriented programming concepts. For example: ObjectDB and Versant.
- Graph DBMS: a DBMS that uses graph structures to store and manage data. These are ideal for complex, interconnected datasets like social networks and recommendation engines. For example: Neo4j and OrientDB.
- Hierarchical DBMS: a type of DBMS that organizes data in tree-like structures with parent-child relationships. For example, IBM’s Information Management System (IMS) and Windows Registry.
- Network DBMS: a DBMS that organizes data in a network structure, where each record can have multiple parent and child records. For example: Integrated Data Store (IDS) and Integrated Database Management System (IDMS).
For more insight on whether to use SQL or NoSQL databases, read this blog.
Most Popular Database Management Systems
According to Stack Overflow’s 2022 Developer Survey, MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, MongoDB, Microsoft SQL Server, and Redis comprise the top six most popular DBMSs for the year.
Among the respondents (both beginners and professionals), 46.85% reported using MySQL, and 43.59% reported using PostgreSQL. PostgreSQL was also the most-loved DBMS for the year.
Well-known names like Oracle, Cassandra, and DynamoDB were further down the list in the 2022 rankings.
What databases do we use every day?
Services like online video streaming, online gaming, Google Drive (or other cloud storage services), sports scores, mobile banking, etc., can be considered examples of databases you use every day.
Which DBMS is the best for beginners?
Microsoft SQL Server and SQLite are widely considered the best DBMS for beginners to learn.
What is the simplest form of database?
A flat model database is the simplest form of database. This model contains standalone tables unrelated to each other.
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